Blood pressure is considered high if the upper value of the blood pressure (known as systolic value) is 140mmHg or more, or the lower value of the blood pressure (known as the diastolic value) is 90mmHg or more, or both.
Hypertension or high blood pressure refers to the condition in which the blood is pumped around the body at too high a pressure. Blood pressure is not the same throughout the day. It varies with time of day or night, exercise, excitement or stress. Because of this normal variation, it is important to measure the blood pressure a few times on different occasions.
High blood pressure is a common condition in which the long-term force of the blood against your artery walls is high enough to cause health problems, such as heart disease.
Blood pressure is determined both by the amount of blood your heart pumps and the amount of resistance to blood flow in your arteries. The more blood your heart pumps and the narrower your arteries, the higher your blood pressure.
In 95% of cases, the cause of hypertension is unknown. In 5% of cases, hypertension may be due to causes such as kidney disease, narrowing of certain blood vessels or hormonal imbalance.
Obesity, diabetes, smoking, excessive salt and alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and frequent psychological stress are risk factors that increase the chance of developing hypertension.
People who have a family history of hypertension are also more Iikely to develop hypertension. Your risk doubles if you have one or more close family members with high blood pressure before the age of 60. A very strong family history means you have 3 or more relatives who had high blood pressure before 60. It is important to understand that a family history of high blood pressure does not mean you will have high blood pressure, but it increases your chances.
Hypertension is often called the ''silent killer." Even when severe, it may not give rise to any symptoms. Occasionally, you may have headaches or giddiness when the hypertension is severe. However, these symptoms are not specific to hypertension; they are also present in other diseases. Sometimes, hypertension is only discovered when complications set in, for example, a stroke or a heart attack.
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Heart attacks and strokes are common emergencies related to hypertension and can be
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Lifestyle modification forms the foundation for the treatment of hypertension and other metabolic disease. Very often losing weight, exercising, eating less salt, quitting smoking and avoiding excessive alcohol is all that is needed to control blood pressure. When changing lifestyle does not help control blood pressure, anti-hypertensive medications may be prescribed. Even when taking medication, healthy lifestyle should be continued. Appropriate treatment of high blood pressure has been known to reduce death rates from strokes and coronary heart disease.
You have been diagnosed with having high blood pressure (hypertension), and will most likely be prescribed drugs that belong to these 5 main groups:
Prescription of medication is individualised depending on the person's age, sex and coexisting medical conditions. More than one drug may be prescribed to keep the blood pressure (BP) at an acceptable level. Single drugs which combine medications from 2 of these groups are also available.
Prehypertension is a warning sign – a yellow light in the traffic lights of cardiovascular disease. It means that you will probably develop high blood pressure in the future. Hence, it is a precursor of complications that come with hypertension such as increased risk of heart attack, stroke, coronary heart disease, heart failure, and kidney failure. If you are overweight, lead a sedentary lifestyle, you smoke, drink excessive alcohol, eat food with high salt content, and have a family history of hypertension; you are most likely at risk of prehypertension. Prehypertension usually poses no symptoms and is diagnosed at a doctor’s clinic or pharmacy when your blood pressure is taken during a regular health screening.
Coronary Artery Disease, also called CAD, coronary arteriosclerosis, coronary atherosclerosis is the most common type of heart disease. It is important to learn the basics and know how to manage CAD effectively. Here are the Top 7 facts you should know about Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)
A breast lump is a localised swelling, bulge, or bump in the breast that feels different from the breast tissue around it or the breast tissue in the same area of the other breast. Breast lumps may develop in both males and females, but they are much more common in females.
Uterine fibroids are non-cancerous growths of the uterus that often appear during childbearing years. Also called leiomyomas (lie-o-my-O-muhs) or myomas, uterine fibroids aren’t associated with an increased risk of uterine cancer and almost never develop into cancer.
Vaginal health is an important part of a woman's overall well being. Vaginal problems can affect your fertility, desire for sex and ability to reach orgasm. Ongoing vaginal health issues can also cause stress or relationship problems and impact your self-confidence.
The liver is an organ about the size of a football that sits just under your rib cage on the right side of your abdomen. The liver is essential for digesting food and ridding your body of toxic substances.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) occurs when stomach acid frequently flows back into the tube connecting your mouth and stomach (esophagus). This backwash (acid reflux) can irritate the lining of your esophagus and cause symptoms that affect your health.
Glaucoma is associated with higher-than-normal pressure inside the eye (ocular hypertension). If untreated or uncontrolled, glaucoma first causes peripheral vision loss and eventually can lead to blindness.
The eye’s natural crystalline lens helps us focus on people and things at varying distances.
Unfortunately, as we grow older this lens often stiffens and hardens, and without its youthful suppleness, it loses its ability to focus, creating vision problems. This condition — for most, a natural consequence of aging — is called presbyopia.
On a family vacation in Bogor, Jonathan*, 52, suffered a massive stroke but refused to be taken to the hospital by his wife only until much too late. The next few days were filled with hospital arrangements, consultations with doctors there, and the logistics of getting him home which weighed down on his wife. She had a business to run, 4 children below 19 years old, and not much time to think about the longer-term implications of Jonathan’s stroke. This process of adjusting to a new way of life to cater for Jonathan’s needs only kicked start after they went back to Jakarta, where he spent a month in the hospital and then three months at the rehabilitation centre. He had lost all ability to speak, write, or even gesture to show his needs.
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